Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 1401. Environmental Science. 4 Hours.

A general course designed to cover all areas relating to contemporary ecological problems. Topics include air, water, and soil pollution; radiation, limnology, climate, pesticides, wastes, and land conservation. This course is designed for non-science majors to help them meet their General Education science requirement, and as in introductory course in environmental science for ENVR majors. BIOL 1401 cannot be applied to either a major or a minor in Biology.
Prerequisite: Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 1408. Contemporary Biology. 4 Hours.

Presentation for the non-science major of biological concepts and topical subjects related to science methods, embryological development, reproduction, genetics, evolution, human organ systems, disease, and environmental biology. Ethical considerations of reproduction and birth control, genetic engineering, environmental pollution and population control will be included. This course is designed for non-science majors to help them meet their General Education science requirement and cannot be applied to either a major or a minor in Biology. Includes a 2 hour lab. Fall, Spring, Summer. >b> .

BIOL 1411. General Botany. 4 Hours.

General principles of botany are presented. Emphasis is placed on morphology, taxonomy, genetics, physiology, and ecology of plants in an evolutionary and ecological context. Students may begin sequence with either BIOL 1411 or BIOL 1413. Includes a 3 hour lab. Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisite: Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 1413. General Zoology. 4 Hours.

General principles of zoology are presented in an evolutionary context. Emphasis is placed on the anatomy, behavior, and ecology of animals. Students are introduced to evolutionary and ecological principles of biology. Students may begin sequence with either BIOL 1411 or BIOL 1413. Includes a 3 hour lab. Fall, Spring, Summer.
Prerequisite: Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 1436. Foundations Of Science. 4 Hours.

The course focuses on the nature of science as a reliable method of acquiring knowledge about the natural world. Students will learn how to apply key scientific facts, concepts, laws and theories to distinguish science from non-science, bad science, and pseudoscience by analyzing a variety of claims and case studies. By employing an innovative, interdisciplinary approach to science education, this course is designed to increase science literacy and critical thinking skills for introductory-level students. This course is designed for non-science majors to help them meet their General Education science requirement and cannot be applied to either a major or a minor in Biology. Students must enroll concurrently in the corresponding lab for this course. Includes a lab.
Prerequisite: Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 2320. Sustainability and Environment. 3 Hours.

In this course, students will investigate and assess the impacts that human activity can have on the environment and will seek to identify innovative, cross-disciplinary solutions to many of the world's most pressing environmental challenges. Given that Sustainability Science involves making decisions and taking actions that are in the interest of protecting the natural world, course topics will include current sustainability issues related to population growth, agriculture, natural resources, energy usage, habitat degradation and ecological economics. This course will typically be offered every other fall semster.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1401.

BIOL 2401. Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

This course deals with structure and form of the human body. It includes studies of cells, tissues, and organ systems. Registration is primarily for students in prenursing or majors in kinesiology or health. Two-hour laboratory. Fall, Spring. Credit in this course cannot be applied to either a major or minor in Biology.
Prerequisite: Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 2402. Human Physiology. 4 Hours.

This course will help students identify and understand the function of several important human organ systems and how these systems maintain homeostasis. Topics and the mechanisms involving circulation, digestion, metabolism, muscle action and respiration will receive the most emphasis. This course is designed to emphasize a clinical knowledge of physiology and techniques required by students studying nursing, physical therapy, and related health fields. Two-hour laboratory. Fall and Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 2401 and CHEM 1406 or CHEM 1306 and CHEM 1106 or CHEM 1411 or CHEM 1311 and CHEM 1111.

BIOL 2403. Human Anatomy & Physiology I. 4 Hours.

This course is the first course in a two-semester sequence that examines the systems of the human body using an integrated approach. Emphasis will be given to the study of cells and tissues, and the anatomical and physiological interrelationships of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems and special senses. Laboratory exercises will enhance the student’s appreciation and comprehension of the biological concepts of structure and function of the human body.

BIOL 2404. Human Anatomy & Physiology II. 4 Hours.

This course is the second course in a two-semester sequence that examines the systems of the human body using an integrated approach. Emphasis is placed on the study of the following systems: endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic and immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. In addition this course requires in-depth application of topics related to cellular function and metabolism and of organ systems studied during Human Anatomy and Physiology I. Laboratory exercises will enhance the student’s appreciation and comprehension of the biological concepts of structure and function of the human body.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 2403.

BIOL 2420. Intro Applied Microbiology. 4 Hours.

An introduction to microorganisms, their morphology, growth requirements, methods of culture, and the manner in which they affect health. Reactions of the body toward pathogenic organisms and the principles of immunity and chemotherapy are considered. Two-hour laboratory. Fall, Spring. Credit in this course cannot be applied to a major or minor in Biology. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 2401 and BIOL 2402, and C or better in CHEM 1411 or CHEM 1406 or a C or better in CHEM 1111 and CHEM 1311 or CHEM 1106 and CHEM 1306.

BIOL 2440. Introductory Cell Biology. 4 Hours.

An introduction to the study of cells, including scientific methods, biochemistry, metabolism, cell energetics, membranes, cellular evolution, DNA, protein synthesis, the cytoskeleton, cell division, and the cellular basis of inheritance, with emphasis on the development of problem solving skills. Two-hour laboratory. Fall, Spring, Summer. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, and CHEM 1311, CHEM 1111 or CHEM 1411.

BIOL 3364. Plant Taxonomy. 3 Hours.

A study of the characteristics and classification of plants emphasizing systematic techniques. Focus on identification of the more common plant families allows transfer of knowledge to other regions of the country and world. Two-hour laboratory. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113.

BIOL 3390. Science Teaching Methods. 3 Hours.

In this course, students seeking the Composite Science teaching certification for the 7th through 12th grade level examine topics related to science teaching pedagogies. Topics include relevant concepts and literature regarding the nature of science, the planning and implementation of scientific investigations and activities, theory-grounded lesson construction and implementation, the use of equipment and technology, and the implementation of safety practices in laboratory settings.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1413, BIOL 2440, CHEM 1411, CHEM 1412, GEOG 1401, GEOL 1403, GEOL 1404, PHYS 1301/1101, PHYS 1302/1102 or instructor approval.

BIOL 3409. General Ecology. 4 Hours.

A study of physical and biotic components of the environment, responses of organisms to their environment, community ecology, natural ecosystems, and human’s interaction with ecosystems. Field studies are an integral part of the laboratory. Three-hour laboratory and field work. Fall, Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411 and 1413. college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 3410. Human Biology. 4 Hours.

This course deals with the study of structure and function of the human body. The structure of various organ systems are discussed and their function as organs and systems described. Two-hour laboratory as needed. Fall, Spring. This course may not be used for graduation credit by Medical Allied Health Students. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440.

BIOL 3420. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 4 Hours.

A study of representative vertebrates, their anatomy, ontogeny, and phylogeny. The course is strongly recommended for premedical/professional students. Three-hour laboratory. Fall. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411 and BIOL 1413 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 3430. Plant Physiology. 4 Hours.

General course dealing with principal life processes of plants. Topics include photosynthesis, respiration, nutrition, flowering, dormancy, hormones, growth, and development. Three-hour laboratory. Even year, Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440, CHEM 1311, CHEM 1111 or CHEM 1411 and CHEM 1312, CHEM 1112 or CHEM 1412.

BIOL 3440. General Physiology. 4 Hours.

The study of the primary mechanisms by which autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms function. Important fundamental aspects of cellular, regulatory, and systemic physiology are presented emphasizing the functional aspect of living systems at the cellular and molecular levels. Students are expected to develop an integrated understanding of the areas presented and recognize the interdependence of these mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis. Three-hour laboratory. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, BIOL 2440, CHEM 1411, CHEM 1412, CHEM 2323, CHEM 2123.

BIOL 3450. Introductory Genetics. 4 Hours.

Study is made of the physical bases of inheritance and principles of heredity and variation. Topics include Mendelian genetics, cytogenetics, molecular basis of genetics, gene expression and regulation, and DNA technologies. Two-hour laboratory. Fall, Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 2440, CHEM 1311, CHEM 1111 or CHEM 1411 and CHEM 1312, CHEM 1112 or CHEM 1412.

BIOL 3460. Pathophysiology. 4 Hours.

A study of basic physiological systems and underlying system dysfunctions associated with human disease processes across the life span. Relationships between etiologic agents and their consequence to human form and function will be stressed. Critical thinking processes integrating symptoms, treatment and prognosis will be applied to physiological perspectives. Four hours lecture per week. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 2301, BIOL 2401, BIOL 2402, BIOL 2440, BIOL 4096, CHEM 1306, CHEM 1106 or CHEM 1406 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 3461. Fish Wildlife Recreation Mngt. 4 Hours.

The history and basic principles, philosophy and concepts of wildlife management as they relate to habitats, people, and the problems associated with their interactions. Three-hour laboratory and field work. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, and BIOL 3409.

BIOL 3470. General Microbiology. 4 Hours.

An introduction to microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Major areas considered are morphology, physiology, genetics, and pathology. Microorganisms are studied in relation to soil, water, food, industrial processes, and disease. Three-hour laboratory. Fall, Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411, 1413, 2440, CHEM 1312/1112 or CHEM 1412.

BIOL 3480. Developmental Biology. 4 Hours.

This is a study of the early development of representative vertebrates from fertilization until differentiation of organs has been completed. Two-hour laboratory. Even year, Fall. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440.

BIOL 3490. Histology. 4 Hours.

A study of animal tissues with emphasis on human materials. Identification and preparatory techniques are stressed. Three-hour laboratory as needed. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440, CHEM 1312, CHEM 1112 or CHEM 1412.

BIOL 3492. Plant Morphology. 4 Hours.

Survey of the plant kingdom with emphasis on morphogenesis, comparative structure and life cycles of representative plant forms. Three-hour laboratory. Fall, Summer. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, and BIOL 2440.

BIOL 4080. Field and Experiential Biology. 1-3 Hours.

This course provides students with an informative, stimulating, and hands-on introduction to field biology and field research. This course introduces undergraduate students to field methods and to the ecology and natural history of a particular geographic region. This course consists of two parts: a weekly seminar during the semester that introduces and discusses the geographic region and ecological system (i.e. the Florida Everglades), and an off-campus field trip to that location during a semester break. Spring, Summer. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, BIOL 2440 and BIOL 3409 (may be concurrently enrolled).

BIOL 4095. Undergrad Rsrch Tpcs-Biology. 4 Hours.

This course is designed to allow selected, advanced students in specific areas of biology to participate directly in biological research. The research project will be developed jointly by the student and a faculty mentor, and must be pre-approved by the Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences. Variable Credit (1-4). Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math. This course may be taken for Academic Distinction Credit. See Academic Distinction Catalog Program in this Catalog.
Prerequisite: Biology major, minimum Junior standing.

BIOL 4096. Spcl Topics In Undergrad Bio. 3 Hours.

This course of faculty-led study is designed to provide exposure of undergraduate students to new biological topics and concepts in a course setting, prior to that course's formal Department, College, and University course adoption. This course may be repeated for different Special Topics (different courses). Variable Credit (1-4). Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math. This course may be taken for Academic Distinction Credit. See Academic Distinction Catalog Program in this Catalog.
Prerequisite: Biology major, minimum Junior standing.

BIOL 4110. Undergraduate Seminar. 1 Hour.

Discussions of current literature in the biological sciences. Required of senior Biology majors. Fall, Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Biology major, Senior standing.

BIOL 4111. Undergraduate Seminar. 1 Hour.

Discussions of current research presented by faculty participating in the Department of Biological Sciences weekly seminar series. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Biology major, Senior standing.

BIOL 4306. Philosophy Of Biology. 3 Hours.

This course will help the student understand the philosophical issues associated with defining and applying theoretical terms and constructs within evolutionary biology. Even year, Spring. advanced biology, and Junior standing. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440, and 8 hrs.

BIOL 4320. Environmental Toxicology. 3 Hours.

(Also listed as ENVR 4320). This course presents basic toxicology as a qualitative and quantitative science of the effects of poisons (toxins) upon the environment, individuals, and populations. The course will also provide a comparison of the toxicology of human and other species’ exposure to common environmental contaminants. Two one-hour lectures and one two-hour laboratory as needed. CHEM, and Junior standing. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, and BIOL 2420 or BIOL 3470; MATH 3379 or BIOL 4374; 8 hrs.

BIOL 4330. Aquatic Biology. 3 Hours.

Physical, chemical, and biological features of inland waters; organisms of freshwater; factors in biological productivity; methods and equipment. Largely a field course dealing with various approved methods of studying freshwater systems. This course is designed to meet the needs of chemists, teachers of science, biologists, and environmental scientists. Two-hour laboratory. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411 and BIOL 1413 and Junior standing.

BIOL 4350. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Humoral and cell-mediated immunobiology, genetics, and chemistry are considered along with immunoanalyses and pathologies. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 2323, BIOL 2123 and Junior standing.

BIOL 4360. Genetic Anlys of Human Disease. 3 Hours.

(Prior SH course id: BIO 436); A study of the transmission and molecular basis of human genetic traits and genetic diseases. Various simple and complex genetic disorders will be examined using pedigree, molecular, and biochemical analyses. Novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of human genetic disorders will be discussed. Special topics examining the ethical, legal, and social issues and concerns of genetic testing and discrimination, germ line therapy, genetic enhancement, and human cloning will be examined. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 3450, and Junior standing. college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.

BIOL 4361. Introductory Evolutionary Bio. 3 Hours.

Evolution is the core theory of modern biology. Students will be introduced to the major principles of evolutionary biology, from the history of evolutionary thought through theory and current concepts of evolution. Emphasis will be placed on molecular and cellular evolution, mechanisms of evolution including natural selection, gene flow, founder effect, and speciation. Fall, Spring. advanced biology, and Junior standing. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of "C" in BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, BIOL 2440 and 8 hrs.

BIOL 4362. Paleobiology. 3 Hours.

This course examines temporal and spatial changes of life on earth in an evolutionary context, particularly large scale events such as radiations and extinctions. Emphasis is placed on anatomy and taxonomy of fossil invertabrates and vertabrates. The laboratory component encompasses the collection, preparation, and description of a variety of fossil types.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111 and BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, or permission of the instructor.

BIOL 4363. Genomics and Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

This course will discuss advances in genomics and bioinformatics. Students will study computational and bioinformatic approaches to understand the genome structure, function, and evolution. Topics will include DNA sequencing, sequence assembly, gene and protein sequence alignments, whole genome comparison, annotation of DNA sequences, promoter analysis, transcriptomics, proteomics, and phylogenetic analysis.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 3450, and Junior standing.

BIOL 4370. Microbial Ecology. 3 Hours.

This course introduces the student to basic ecological concepts through the study of microbial communities. Interactions at the microscopic and macroscopic levels will be discussed along with biogeochemical cycles. Bioremediation concepts will also be explored. Two one-hour lectures and one three-hour laboratory as needed. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440, and BIOL 2420 or BIOL 3470, CHEM 2125 and CHEM 2325, and Junior standing.

BIOL 4374. Biostatistics. 3 Hours.

This course includes an introduction to statistical methods and their application to real biological problems. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability distributions, estimation, hypothesis testing, correlation and regression, and analysis of variance. Use of the computer in statistical analyses will also be stressed. Fall. advanced biology, MATH 1314 or MATH 1420 and Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: 8 hrs.

BIOL 4380. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

An advanced study of the microorganisms that cause disease and of the disease processes with focus on bacteria and viruses. Emphasis will be placed on pathology, epidemiology and treatment/prevention of specific infectious diseases of medical importance. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 3470 and Junior standing or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 4394. Biological Sciences Internship. 3 Hours.

A supervised, off-campus intern work experience in an approved area of the biological sciences with business, industry or government. This elective course provides the student with direct professional work experience in such areas as biotechnology, biomedical research, ecological assessment, wildlife biology, and science/nature education. Academic credit is based on a written technical report and an oral presentation. Writing enhanced. of advanced biology, Junior standing, 3.0 GPA and approval of Department Chair.
Prerequisite: Biology major, 6 hrs.

BIOL 4398. Senior Thesis I. 3 Hours.

In this class, a student works under close faculty supervision on a sustained research project to produce a thesis proposal. Project topics will vary based on advisor's research expertise. Students will gain hands on experience in conducting research and scientific writing. Successful completion of BIOL 4398 and BIOL 4399 may qualify the student to graduate with Academic Distinction (see the undergraduate catalog for additional requirements of the Academic Distinction Program).
Prerequisite: Senior Standing and approval of the department chair.

BIOL 4399. Senior Thesis II. 3 Hours.

Students in this course work under close faculty supervision on a sustained research project to produce a thesis. Project topics will vary basesd on advisor's research expertise. Students will gain hands on experience in conducting research and scientific writing. Sucessful completion of BIOL 4398 and BIOL 4399 may qualify the student to graduate with Academic Distinction (see the undergraduate catalog for additional requirements of the Academic Distinction Program).
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of B in BIOL 4398 and approval of the department chair.

BIOL 4410. General Entomology. 4 Hours.

A study is made of insect morphology, taxonomy, development, and life histories. Collection and identification by use of keys are stressed. Two-hour laboratory. Spring. Junior standing. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, and BIOL 2440.

BIOL 4430. Vertebrate Natural History. 4 Hours.

This course deals with the taxonomy, natural history, and ecology of vertebrates. Laboratories emphasize the identification of Texas Vertebrates and field techniques used in their study. Two-hour laboratory. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, and Junior standing.

BIOL 4460. Parasitology. 4 Hours.

Morphology, life cycles, physiological adaptations, evolution, and distribution of parasitic animals. Three-hour laboratory. Fall. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411 and BIOL 1413, and Junior standing.

BIOL 4470. Animal Behavior. 4 Hours.

A study of the mechanisms and functional explanations of behavior. Experimental approaches to addressing questions of behavior will be emphasized. Topics will include behavioral genetics, neuroethology, migration, habitat selection, foraging, communication, social behavior, reproductive strategies, and human sociobiology. Field studies and independent projects will be integral components of this course. Two-hour laboratory. Fall. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411 and BIOL 1413 and Junior standing.

BIOL 4471. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Hours.

This course will explore the diversity of invertebrate types morphologically, embryologically and physiologically. The ecological role of invertebrates will be emphasized. Two-hour laboratory. Even year, Fall. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1311, BIOL 1111, BIOL 1313, BIOL 1113, BIOL 2440 and Junior standing.

BIOL 4480. Molecular Biology. 4 Hours.

A hands-on study of the structure and function of molecules important for the Central Dogma of molecular biology, including DNA and protein, with emphasis on electrophoretic analysis and gene cloning. Three-hour laboratory. Fall, Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, BIOL 2440, BIOL 3450, BIOL 3470, CHEM 2125 and CHEM 2325, and Junior Standing.

BIOL 4481. Physiological Ecology. 4 Hours.

This course is a study of the functional processes of organisms within the context of ecological and evolutionary theory, focusing on mechanisms of organismal function, energetics, and the energetic consequences of homeostasis when function is influenced by the environment and other ecological and evolutionary processes. This course is designed for students preparing for graduate studies in integrative biology and does not meet the physiology requirement or recommendation for physiology of medial/dental or allied health programs. Three-hour laboratory. Spring. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 3450, BIOL 3409, Concurrent enrollment allowed; Junior standing.

BIOL 4490. Cell Biology. 4 Hours.

A study of eukaryotic cell structure and function, including protein synthesis, membrane structure and function, intracellular trafficking, cell communication, cell motility, mitosis, and cell cycle control, with emphasis on the use of model organisms. Three-hour laboratory. Fall. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 1411, BIOL 1413, BIOL 2440, BIOL 3450, CHEM 1311, CHEM 1111 or CHEM 1411 and CHEM 1312, CHEM 1112 or CHEM 1412, and Junior standing.

BIOL 4493. Endocrinology. 4 Hours.

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the structure, development, comparative anatomy, and physiology of the endocrine system. Two-hour laboratory. Spring, or as needed. Demonstrated college-level readiness in reading, writing, and math.
Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C in BIOL 3450 and Junior standing.